This research is aimed at determining the effect of HIV infections on some haematological and immunological parameters. One hundred and fifty subjects were recruited for the studies (50 HIV seropositive subjects not on ART, 50 HIV seropositive subjects on ART and 50 HIV seronegative controls). Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. Five millilitre of blood was collected from each subject for HIV test by ELISA, CD4 count by Cyflow technique, immunoglobulin test by immunoturbidimetric method, estimation of FBC by automated analyzer and ESR by Westergren method. Statistical package for social science (version 20) was used for the data analysis. Results shows that the mean ± SD of WBC was significantly higher in control than HIV subjects on ART (p<0.05). IgG and ESR was significantly increased in HIV positive subjects on ART and non-ART than control (p<0.05), while HGB and HCT was significantly lower in HIV positive subjects on ART and HIV subjects not on ART than control (p<0.05). However there was a nonsignificant increase in CD4 count and IgA in control compared to HIV subjects on ART and those not on ART, while there was a non-significant decrease in IgM in control compared to HIV subjects on ART and those not on ART (P>0.05). IgG was significantly higher in female HIV subjects on ART compared to the males while IgM was significantly higher in male HIV subjects not on ART than the females (P<0.05). There is an elevation of ESR and IgG levels in HIV infected subjects with a decrease in HGB and HCT value. The elevated IgG could be attributed to infection requiring IgG response, while elevated ESR could be an indicator of inflammatory response. Immunoglobulin could be used as a predictive marker for monitoring HIV, alongside haematological parameters.
Ifeanyichukwu, Martin Ositadimma, Odozi Efeota Bright, Meludu Samuel C and Okeke Chizoba Okechukwu