The host cell infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is initiated through the entry of the virus into the cell. The major target cells of HIV are cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, which express co-receptors, chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (Gp120) binds to its primary receptor CD4, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily enhances T-Cell Receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling, is absolutely required for the infection. Recent reports on cell surface marker expression levels by infecting CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 viruses gave an insight into host cell responses. In our study, we infected Jurkat, SupT1 cells and PBMCs with HIV-1 and analyzed the expression of cell surface markers gp120, CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 levels by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time intervals of post infection. Our study shows that there is ~ 5-fold increase in expression of gp120 1 h post infection and 1.5-fold increase in relative expression of CD4 and CCR5 at 2 h post infection, whereas CXCR4 showed differential up-regulation in different cell lines which needs further analysis.
S. L. Balakrishna, Bharti Gupta and Parikipandla Sridevi